The basic rules, however, are that there should be isolation from the power source (usually, but not exclusively, electrical energy), the isolator should be locked in position (for example by a padlock), and a sign should be used to indicate that maintenance work is in progress. requires use of devices that are specifically designed for this purpose; not devices such as key lockable emergency stops or other types of switches that may be fitted to the machine. Any stored energy (hydraulic or pneumatic power, for instance) should also be dissipated before the work starts.
Branded and plain pack smokers did not differ on measures Canada Goose X Supreme
of less immediate smoking intentions, frequency of thoughts about harms or perceived exaggeration of harms. Appeal outcomes, but not other outcomes, were sensitive to the extent of roll out, with responses from branded pack smokers approaching those of plain pack smokers, once 80% of survey respondents were smoking from plain packs 1 before the December implementation date.ConclusionsThe early indication is that plain packaging is associated with lower smoking appeal, more support for the policy and more urgency to quit among adult smokers.Keywords: Public Health, Social MedicineArticle focusPast studies have demonstrated that plain, as opposed to branded, tobacco packaging leads smokers to perceive the packs as lower in appeal, to make health warnings more salient and to reduce misapprehensions about the perceived harms of smoking.Since no country had implemented plain packaging prior to Australia, all the studies conducted to date have simulated plain packaging.We examined the early impact of plain packaging on smokers in vivo as policy implementation rolled out for the first time in Australia in late 2012 in respect of the perceived appeal and harm outcomes and, in addition, examined any potential effects on thoughts of quitting.Key messagesCompared with smokers smoking from branded packs, smokers who were smoking from the new plain packs were more likely to perceive their tobacco as being lower in quality and tended to be lower in satisfaction, were more likely to think about and prioritise quitting, and more likely to support the plain packaging policy.Appeal outcomes, but not Canada Goose Grey Womens
other outcomes, were sensitive to the extent to which plain packaging had rolled out among the smoker population over the survey period, with responses from branded pack smokers approaching those of plain smokers, at a time when 80% of the survey respondents were smoking from plain packs 1 before the December implementation date.Strengths and limitations of this studyThe study used a representative population survey of smokers and was timed to occur over the period of introduction of plain packs into the Australian market.Although multivariate analysis adjusted for the underlying https://www.canadagoosemontreal.nu differences between plain and branded smokers, these results may be partly explained by differential selection, with some smokers choosing to avoid the new plain packs for as long as possible.Some smokers of https://www.canadagoosemontreal.nu branded packs may previously have smoked from a plain pack, which would be expected to reduce differences between plain and branded pack smokers.Our study is not able to tease apart the independent contributions of plain packaging and the new larger graphic health warnings, since they co occurred.IntroductionFrom 1 September 2012, all tobacco manufactured for sale in Australia Canada Goose Womens Bomber
was required to be contained in plain dark brown packs, with 75% front of pack graphic warnings and the brand name and variant limited to a standardised font size and type.1 This requirement supplanted Australian legislation that had required 30% front of pack graphic warnings since 2006.2 The new plain packs with larger warnings began appearing for sale at retail outlets early in October and increasingly so during November, since from 1 December 2012, all tobacco sold at retail outlets was required to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada_goose be contained in plain packs.